STATUS: In Prison
Liu Xiaobo is a renowned literary critic, writer, and political activist based in Beijing. He served as president of the Independent Chinese PEN Center from 2003 to 2007 and now serves as an honorary president. Liu Xiaobo was a professor at Beijing Normal University and has worked as a visiting scholar at several universities outside of China, including the University of Oslo, the University of Hawaii, and Columbia University in New York City.
Liu Xiaobo is the winner of the 2009 PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award and the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize.
On December 10, 2010, Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Liu was poignantly represented by an empty chair at the ceremony in Oslo. When told of the announcement after October 8, he wept and told his wife, Liu Xia, that it was dedicated to the martyrs of Tiananmen. Liu Xia has been under house arrest since the award announcement and is incommunicado.
Liu Xiaobo was formally moved to Jinzhou Prison in Liaoning, his home province, on May 24, 2010. He reportedly now has access to books published in China and is permitted rare visits from his wife.
Liu Xiaobo was tried by the Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court on December 23, 2009, and pleaded not guilty to the charge of "inciting subversion of state power." The trial lasted less than three hours, and the defense was not permitted to present evidence. Two days later, on December 25, Liu Xiaobo was sentenced to 11 years in prison and two years' deprivation of political rights. The Beijing High Court rejected his appeal on February 11, 2010.
Liu Xiaobo was formally arrested by the Beijing Public Security Bureau on June 23, 2009 and charged with “inciting subversion of state power” for co-authoring Charter 08, a declaration calling for political reform, greater human rights, and an end to one-party rule in China that has been signed by hundreds of individuals from all walks of life throughout the country. His case was officially moved to the prosecutor's office on December 8, 2009. He had been detained a year earlier, on December 8, 2008, and held for six months and two weeks under “residential surveillance” while police gathered evidence on his case. Liu Xia, Liu Xiaobo’s wife, has only been permitted to visit him twice, he did not have access to a lawyer and he was denied writing materials while detained at an undisclosed location in Beijing. He was held at the No. 1 Detention Center of Beijing City, where he has finally had access to his lawyers, from the date of his formal arrest in 2009 until May 24, 2010.
In the spring of 1989, Liu Xiaobo left his post at Columbia University and returned to Beijing to play a crucial role in the spreading pro-democracy movement, staging a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square in support of the students and leading calls for a truly broad-based, sustainable democratic movement. He was instrumental in preventing even further bloodshed in the Square by supporting and advancing a call for non-violence on the part of the students. He spent two years in prison for his role, and another three years of “reeducation through labor” in 1996 for publicly questioning the role of the single-party system and calling for dialogue between the Chinese government and the Dalai Lama of Tibet.
In 2004, Liu’s phone lines and Internet connection were cut after the release of his essay criticizing the use of “subversion” charges used to silence journalists and activists, and he has been the target of regular police surveillance and harassment in the years since.
Just after 9:00 p.m. on December 8, 2008, before the formal release of Charter 08, police arrived at the Beijing homes of Liu and fellow activist Zhang Zuhua. At 11:00 p.m., they took both men away and searched their homes, confiscating computers and other materials. His arrest occurred during a period of several sensitive anniversaries, including the 100-year anniversary of the promulgation of China’s first constitution, the 60-year anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the 30-year anniversary of Beijing’s “Democracy Wall” movement.
While Zhang Zuhua was released the following morning, Liu Xiaobo remained in detention. He was held incommunicado until December 31, when he was finally permitted a visit from his wife.
After Liu Xiaobo’s arrest, nearly all of the 300 original signatories of Charter 08 were interrogated in a push to gather evidence against him and crack down on free expression in China.
WRITING BY LIU XIAOBO
The Internet is God's Present to China
Four Poems: One Letter is Enough, Longing to Escape, A Small Rat in Prison, and Daybreak
Authoritarianism in the Light of the Olympic Flame
- China's Nobels, by Larry Siems and Jeffrey Yang, from the New York Times
- On the Day When Liu Xiaobo is Absent at the Nobel Prize Ceremony, by Tienchi Martin-Liao, from Deutsche Welle
- Nobel Peace Prize: The Life and Work of Liu Xiaobo, by Malcolm Moore, from The Telegraph
- Nobel Winner Liu Xiaobo's Wife Under House Arrest After Prison Visit, by Tom Lasseter, from McClatchy News
- Why We Gave Liu Xiaobo a Nobel, by Thorbjorn Jaglund, from the New York Times
- China's Burden of Shame, by Anthony Appiah, from Foreign Policy
- Calls to Free Dissident, CNN Interview with K. Anthony Appiah
- China Warns Against Nobel Prize for Leading Dissident, from Reuters
- Nomination of Liu Xiaobo for the Nobel Peace Prize, by Anthony Appiah
- The Poet in an Unknown Prison, by Liu Xia, from The New York Review of Books
- "Where is China heading?," by Tania Branigan, from The Guardian
- China's Charter 08